and the members of the Group group, these models aren't really different from models of gene selection (aka inclusive fitness). Corporate America may never sanction working only four hours a day, but research suggests that to maximize productivity we should reform the current model of consecutive 40-hour workweeks separated only by two-day weekends and sometimes interrupted by short vacations. Evolution, culture, and the human mind. But progress is possible. The old metaphor of the 'superorganism' has some applicability to a beehive, and the worker bees are partially comparable to the cells of an individual lion. These moments of introspection are also one way we form a sense of self, which is essentially a story we continually tell ourselves. Evolution and Human Behavior, 2012. Mostly, to my eye, it helps sort out cultural "evolution" (perhaps better thought of as honesty is the best policy essay in urdu "progress from biological evolution.
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4 Of course, one can dismiss these intuitive remarks and relegate them to philosophical quibbles. At the same time, the theory is mathematically equivalent to standard evolutionary theories based on gene selection or inclusive fitness, so the two theories make identical predictions and can never be empirically distinguished. It's certainly true that often one can figure out how to use any of these three accounting systems to solve a simple problem, and they give the same answer (about equilibrium states). Traits can evolve by between-group selection, despite being selectively disadvantageous within groups. The "minimal group" studies of Henri Tajfel 3 showed this long agopeople will make more positive attributions about strangers assigned to their own group even on the basis of arbitrary criteria, no more meaningful than a coin flip. One cognitive twist on this formula is that humans are language-using creatures who need not discriminate reciprocators from exploiters only by direct personal experience, but can also ask around and find out their reputation for reciprocating with or exploiting others. Copies of them are passed on via queens and kings, whose replicating genes are protected by the mound, with all its many chambers and air-conditioning conduits. Are there ways in which genes can be selected for the benefit of entire groups? (There is some irony in the fact that Pinker shares this view with Richard Lewontin, one of evolutionary psychology's most vociferous critics.) This is really not satisfactory. Under the influence of Roman Catholicism, noon became known as sexta (the sixth hour, according to their clocks a time for rest and prayer. So, in what way is cultural evolution a metaphorical extension of genetic evolution? Further, we have shown with behavioral experiments that one-shot generosity is in fact conditioned on how valuable the participant perceives the partner to be as a potential cooperative partner.